Καινοτομία και εμπορική δραστηριότητα
Innovation and trade
KeywordsΚαινοτομία ; Πατέντες ; Εμπορική δραστηριότητα ; Έρευνα και ανάπτυξη ; Εξαγωγές ; Οικονομική ανάπτυξη
Innovation is undisputably a source of economic and trade activity. Trough the use of new and groundbreaking products and services, the world economy sustains its growth path and the lives of millions of people are drastically improved. However, a country’s ability to innovate is not a random occurrence. The appropriate social, political and economic context is needed for innovative ideas to incubate and transform into sustainable businesses and new functional structures with an impact on society. Trade exchanges through know-how transfer and growth of the economies, provide the potential for innovation. The contribution of research and development to the creation of innovative products and services is also crucial. An increasing number of countries, understanding the importance of innovation in the development of their economies, invest large part of their budget in research and development. The European Union with the aim of preserving the economic prosperity of the Member States has created the «Horizon 2020» framework program, which involves investing 77 billion euros in research and development in 2014-2020. In this diploma thesis we study the relation between innovation and trade activity. Analysis is also done in the concepts of innovation, research and development, patents and exports as well as the performace of European Union in these areas. Emphasis is placed on the impact of exports on innovation. For the survey, data from the World Bank on patents and various macroeconomic indicators were used for four countries in the European Union from 1985 to 2004.