Θεσμικές προϋποθέσεις για οικονομική ανάπτυξη : η αγορά ακινήτων στην Ελλάδα - Εμπόδια και ευκαιρίες
KeywordsΆτυποι θεσμοί ; Τυπικοί θεσμοί ; Επαρκείς θεσμοί ; Ιδιοκτησία ; Ανάπτυξη ; Πληροφορία ; Μεταβίβαση ακινήτου ; Συναλλακτικά κόστη ; Συμβολαιογραφικά έγγραφα ; Θεώρημα Coase ; Wealth effect ; Endowment effect ; Εξωτερικότητες ; Άμεσες διαπραγματεύσεις ; Κοινωνική ευημερία ; Αστικός κώδικας ; Παρεοκρατικός καπιταλισμός ; Φορολογία ακινήτων ; Συνδικάτα ; Ιδιοκτησιακά δικαιώματα ; Ασύμμετρη πληροφόρηση ; Δυσμενής επιλογή ; Ηθικός κίνδυνος ; Αγορά
This diploma thesis aims at the unification of two (2) extremely important axes of today's society. The given existence of formal and informal institutions with the real estate market, as a vehicle for the development of our national economy. More specifically, typical institutions in the real estate market are the state services that are related to it at all stages of a transfer. That is, the land registry offices, the professional associations, the urban planning, etc., which are institutionalized bodies having a very basic role of opinion and licensing in any purchase and sale. Informal institutions in the real estate market are non-institutionalized or explicitly designated institutions such as informal negotiations that result in (informal) oral agreements. Due to inefficient informal institutions (raw social capital, lack of trust), reaching an oral agreement alone is not enough to substantiate the right to transfer a property, with the result that most brokers require a down payment for any agreement, in order to ensure that it will actually take place without a member withdrawing before the signing of the notarial deed. In a similar case, e.g. in the diamond district of New York, the purchase and sale is essentially carried out with a handshake, which has a direct economic impact (significant reduction in transaction costs). In many societies, informal institutions are enough for smooth social coexistence and the maintenance of order. What is of particular interest, especially in the case of our country, is how necessary the existence of formal institutions such as land registry offices proves to be as they ensure an explicit as well as clear recording of property rights. In some cases, however, e.g. in notaries' fees, the existence of a minimum statutory fee and not freely negotiable leads to market distortion. Ideally, this diploma thesis calls for rationalization of institutions, not necessarily for their radical change. In general, the formal institutions in our country, of course, must exist, but they must be reformed based on international and European standards so that they serve the wider society by acting as a developmental springboard in every sector of the economy (services, industry, etc.) while at the same time the improvement of informal institutions is required, an improvement that will act multiplier in every social aspect.