Επιχειρησιακές στρατηγικές ανταγωνισμού στον κλάδο παραγωγής ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας στην Ελλάδα
Competition business strategies in the electricity industry in Greece
KeywordsΒιομηχανία της ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας ; Απόδοση ; Ανταγωνισμός ; Νομοθεσία ; Ιδιωτικοποίηση ; Αγορά της ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας ; Απελευθέρωση αγοράς ; Μορφές αγοράς ; Παραγωγή και κατανάλωση ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας ; Ανεξάρτητες αρχές αγοράς ; Διαχειριστής δικτύων ; Ημερήσιος ενεργειακός προγραμματισμός ; Οριακή τιμή συστήματος ; Electricity industry ; Electricity industry ; Performance ; Competition ; Regulation ; Privatization ; Electricity market ; Liberalization market ; Market forms ; Production and consumption of electricity ; Independent Market Authorities ; Network administrator ; Daily energy programming ; System Marginal Price
Until the mid 1990s, electricity sector in many OECD countries (especially the European member states) was highly regulated and state-owned. Vertically integrated companies mainly involved in the activities of generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity to final consumers, serving either exclusively certain regions or even entire Member States. However, during the last decades, many of them were challenged to reform the electricity market due to inefficiencies identified in its vertically integrated segments. The low productivity of the industry along with high degree of borrowing by the state-owned energy companies, have gradually led governments to pursue strategies focusing on the opening of the electricity markets. In other words, electricity sector reform has often been regarded either as a means to raise revenue by privatization or as an imperative for upgrading the inflow of foreign direct investments in developed countries. This study attempts to empirically investigate to what extend different structural forms of regulation, competition and privatization explain these differences. It distinguishes thee modes of electricity performance: a) Net generation per capita, b) Installed capacity and c) Labour productivity. The empirical model uses an updates data set covering the period 1975-2013. The objective of this study is to quantify the electricity liberalization process in Greece, analyzing the electricity industry, describing the market operation model. The first chapter inserts the term of electricity and its specific attributes. Furthermore, it analyzes the forms of electricity markets, such as perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly. The second chapter refers to regulatory framework applied and the gradual liberalization of electricity based on Community Directives adopted by the European Union. The third chapter is mentioned to the course of market liberalization in Greece. This chapter describes the role of Energy Regulatory Authority, the System Operator and the position of D.E.I. , like the introduction of independent private producers, thus forming, the wholesale and retail electricity market. The fourth chapter analyzes, in depth, the electricity industry in Greece in terms of relevant markets in accordance with competition law. Additionally, through Porter’s model the market competition factors are analyzed, and finally, the PESTEL analysis presents all external factors affecting the electricity industry in Greece. The fifth chapter presents the methodology used in the empirical analysis and reports the main empirical findings of the research together with some policy implications.