Το υφιστάμενο και εξελισσόμενο νομικό καθεστώς έρευνας εκμετάλλευσης και ναυσιπλοΐας στο βόρειο πόλο : κλιματική αλλαγή περιβάλλον και γεωπολιτικός ανταγωνισμός
KeywordsΤήξη των πάγων ; Γεωπολιτικός ανταγωνισμός ; Ασφαλής ναυσιπλοΐα ; Melting ice ; Geopolitical competition ; Sustainable development ; Safe navigation
Arctic is a vast area of 13.98 million sq. Km (about 4.7 times the size of the Mediterranean Sea) around the North Pole. It includes the northern parts of the United States (Alaska), Canada, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and the whole coastal area of the so-called Arctic Ocean or North Ice Ocean. The ice sheet covering almost the entire Arctic began to melt, very quickly. Scientists predict total loss by the summer of 2040. The above climate change will bring tremendous changes in world affairs, since the Arctic hides huge unexploited resources: from new commercial shipping lanes and fishing grounds, to tourist attractions, while there is clear evidence that in the subsoil there are the largest remaining hydrocarbon deposits. Since the beginning of the 21st century every Arctic State began to develop its strategy for the Arctic. In the essay following, it is firstly described, a detailed analysis of the claims of the Arctic States, which are mainly raised under the UNCLOS Convention and the Law of the Sea and subsequently it is spotted through official sources, all those decisions and movements of the actors in the region which constitute the policy to be followed by the Arctic States in the 21st century. Finally there is a detailed reference to the decisions of the IMO Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters with a view to safe navigation and environmental protection. Based on the above research useful lessons are carried out for both Greek Shipping and Greece.