Άμεσες ξένες επενδύσεις και φαρμακευτικός κλάδος στην Ελλάδα
Foreign direct investments and pharmaceutical sector in Greece
KeywordsΆμεσες ξένες επενδύσεις ; Πολυεθνικές επιχειρήσεις ; Φαρμακευτικός κλάδος στην Ελλάδα και διεθνώς ; Επενδύσεις ξένων πολυεθνικών φαρμακευτικών εταιρειών ; Foreign direct investments ; Factors affecting FDI ; Multinational companies ; Pharmaceutical sector in Greece and abroad ; Investments of foreign multinational pharmaceutical companies
The strategic decision of a multinational company to invest in a foreign country, is the result of the combination of multiple factors. The current economic, social and political conditions, require more careful planning of the strategic moves from the side of the multinational companies, as well as the creation of ideal conditions for the attraction of these investments from the side of the countries, since their benefits and importance have acquired even greater value in our days for the healthy development of both businesses and domestic economies, conclusion derived from numerous studies and surveys that have taken place. From the review of the international editorial it is realized that the factors that the multinational companies take into consideration before they proceed to a foreign direct investment are numerous and interrelated. Every sector of the economy that can become the recipient of the relevant investment, presents specific characteristics that each government much give serious consideration during the formulation of its national policy. In this respect, the pharmaceutical sector of our country is a dominant orientation of foreign investment inflows, since it is dominated from foreign multinational companies that constitute the major players in the drug market. The sectoral studies that have been carried out, demonstrate the contribution of this sector to the domestic economy and the complexity that it displays due to the nature of the trading product. The question that arises is in which areas should the domestic policy be oriented in order to attract as many as possible foreign direct investments in this sector, as well as to maintain the level of the already existing ones. Under this capacity, many of the key macroeconomic factors that potentially affect foreign direct investments are examined, in order to identify those that the pharmaceutical multinational companies consider as most important during the process of decision on investing. From the results of the empirical research, we conclude that the foreign multinational pharmaceutical companies have taken into account in significant extent, quite many of the macroeconomic factors included in the international as determinants of the decision for investment in a foreign country. Moreover, useful conclusions are derived from the analysis of the correlations between the examined factors, as well as the distinction of the pharmaceutical companies by using the following criteria: i) the time period of their initial investment in our country and ii) their nationality, through the non-parametric tests that take place.