Παγκοσμιοποίηση και ναυτιλία: παράλληλη πορεία και επιπτώσεις
SubjectΝαυτιλία -- Οικονομία ; Παγκοσμιοποίηση ; Διεθνής οικονομία ; Shipping -- Economic aspects ; Globalization -- Economic aspects
National markets historically are composed of within a frame where there was a state power and a base for national currency. International trade saw a big development -in a real global sense- by the end of 19th century up to the World War Ι. At that time the development of international market was based on a strict frame of regulations, summarized on the fundamental rule of gold, which specified foreign exchange stability, state behavior and capital movement. Today, we are living an unprecedented period of financial globalism. There is a fastly unfolding recomposition of world trade market, capitals, know-how and labor. However, there is a large asymmetry emerging: there is not a single state overtaking the old regulatory role of national state, regarding market development. New globalism is evolving without "a subject of governance". It stems from the huge development in technology of information/communication, but also from an international political consensus, that was gradually shaped for thirty years from the world's leading powers. After oil crises, banking market deregulation and the collapse of the Soviet Block the principle of free market became the organizational base of the international financial system. It is significant that while previously "globalization" was based on institutionalized rules of currency stability, nowadays, there are no such rules. In general, present globalism does not provide adequate substructures of stability. In the present study we will firstly discuss the relation of "cohabitation" between globalization and shipping industry, where globalization has increased the demands from shipping industry, while shipping industry has almost absolutely activated globalization.