Η ιστορική εξέλιξη και το Νομικό Πλαίσιο της Κοινωνικής Προστασίας της Παιδικής Ηλικίας.
The Historical Evolution and the Legal Framework of the Social Protection of Children.
The following paper is about the Social Protection of Children and it consists of two main sections: Historical Evolution and Legal Framework. The first section is divided into chapters that correspond to large historical eras. For each era, every form of Children’s Social Protection is being analytically described. In the first chapter, the concepts of “family” is being presented at the Pre-Historic era, at the Stone Age and at the Bronze Age where the dominant family pattern was the matriarch with children were being raised close to both parents. Thereafter, great effort for child’s education is done in Ancient Athens. On the contrary, at Ancient Sparta the most important fact was to properly prepare each child through extensive military training in order to be a good warrior. In the second chapter, in Roman times, child’s position in the society was similar to that of a slave. During Middle Age, one fundamental principle was that of the Christian way with excessively however strict education. During Renaissance, it can be observed that the need of Western civilization to be liberated from the various beliefs of Middle Age, led to an explosion of interest about the human being and its development and thus new educational human-centric theories were evolved. Then, basic welfare principles about the child in the Byzantine era, where a lot of improvement can be seen under Christianity, are being presented. In the end of this chapter, the development of social welfare through the years of Ottoman occupation with the rise of secretive schools under the administration of educated priests is being discussed. The third chapter describes the social welfare for the child from the establishment of the Greek state until 1921. Ioannis Kappodistrias (1828-1831), this great leader, gave a huge fight towards protection of children of the nation. After that, Othonas and his kingdom came in Greece (1832-1862), when new ideas for child protection are implemented and also financially supported by the Great Powers that time. From 1864 since 1921, no actions were taken in the area of child protection from the official government and Church along with private sector took initiatives to fill this gap. Then, after all the wars Greece took part, the State is forced to actively participate in social welfare, for instance taking care of thousands of orphan children. In the fourth chapter, there is a discussion of social welfare policies from the destruction of Mikra Asia until the dictatorship of the Colonels. A wide network of institutions is organized until the Second World War when all actions are immediately stopped again. During the German occupation, great help had come from external sources along with the help of Church. Thousands of orphan children after this war and the Civil War that followed were taken care of in massive Child Cities as they were called. Later, International Organizations like UNRA of the UN, tried to reorganize State’s policies and hence social welfare demonstrates progressive course. During dictatorship, economic and social development slowed down but National Welfare Foundation is being established with a possible, according to researchers of this era, effort of demagogue. The last chapter of the first section is referring to the period from restoring democracy until nowadays. Promotion of public training, transformation of Family Law and modernization of the institutional framework of operation of the Social Care Units are some of the initiatives that can be seen in this era. The greatest change in these policies came when Greece entered the European Union mostly due to huge imported funds. Furthermore, Non-Government Organizations who act upon children’s protection are created after 1990. Finally, for public social welfare, recent efforts for reformation of the Foundations of Social Solidarity can be counted. In the second Section, which is organized into two sub-sections, we can see various services of open care and institutional care provided by the State and public sector. The first sub-section includes descriptions of Early Childhood and Childhood Day Care, the Childhood camps and the Departments of Social Services of the Local Authorities Organization. Furthermore, the section presents the policy of allowance to support children and finally it analyzes the statute of Trusteeship, Foster Families and Adoption. In the second sub-section, Services of Closed Care are being recorded. Children Protection Centers, Infant Center “MITERA”, decentralized services of ex- PIKPA, protected apartments and guest houses, the Program of Protection and Social Care of Children on the Street, the National Center of Instant Social Help (EKAKB) and Corporations of Protecting Children are some of those Closed Care Services. In the end of this paper, conclusions and suggestions for improvement of the Open and Closed structures of Social Care are presented.