Συγκριτική ανάλυση της φαρμακευτικής δαπάνης στην Ελλάδα και στις χώρες της Ευρωζώνης την περίοδο 2005-2016
Comparative analysis of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece and the countries of the Eurozone the years 2005-2016
Γιαννούχος, Θεόδωρος Β.
KeywordsΥγεία ; Φάρμακα ; Οικονομία ; Οικονομικά της υγείας ; Πολιτική της υγείας ; Δαπάνες υγείας ; Φαρμακευτικές δαπάνες υγείας ; Οικονομική κρίση ; Health ; Medicine ; Patients ; Economy ; Health economic ; Health policy ; Health expenditures ; Pharmaceutical health expenditure ; Economic crisis
Introduction: The pharmaceutical field is pivotal in the healthcare sector of every National Healthcare System. The singularity and complexity of the healthcare sector in economic terms has over the time lead to an increase in resource consumption in order to meet the patients’ needs. Thus, the challenge faced by all modern economies due to the limited available resources nowadays, is their rational utilization, aiming to maximize the efficiency of the provided healthcare services, combined with quality of service and efficacy. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical expenditure of Greece and the European Union during the last decade. Methods: Diagrams and tables were employed to depict the emerged decline in the pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece, starting with the onset of the financial crisis until today, which was a result of both the impact of the crisis itself and the policies and measures adopted to recover from it. The data studied, used and analyzed, were gathered from trustworthy sources, organizations and official publications such as the World Health Organization, the World Data Bank, the Foundation of Economic and Industrial Research, the Greek Statistical Authority, the Greek Union of Pharmaceutical Corporations, the National Drugs Agency, as well as valid Greek and foreign books, magazines and articles. Regression analysis, time series and the Cochrane-Orcutt model were the methods used in SPSS in order to create tables and make certain conclusions. Results: In this study, two different periods related to the Greek economy and the following trend in the healthcare and pharmaceutical expenditure were selected for further analysis. The first trend reflects the period of 2005 to 2009, with most of the indicators showing rising tendencies, whereas in the second regarding the period of 2010 to 2015, the indicators decline, whilst some of them seem to stabilize during the year 2016. During the years 2005 to 2015, healthcare expenditure declined by 6,1% to €14,7 billion (8,38% of GDP) and the total pharmaceutical expenditure decreased by 20,8%. At the same time, the net public pharmaceutical expenditure declined by 62% to €1,945 billion in total. Simultaneously, the reasons that led to almost steady figures in the height of the pharmaceutical expenditures in more advanced economies despite the implementation of reduction policies on their side against the rising tendencies are being captured and analyzed. Finally, a likely positive relationship between the population and the GDP was proven. Conclusion: The pharmaceutical field draws huge sums upon the overall healthcare expenditures. Changes in trends highly affect the government’s budgeting as well as the level of health and living conditions of the citizens. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical field itself is influenced by the changes in the level of health of the citizens, the epidemiologic and disease pattern and the modern lifestyle, adapting to the new data and needs, resulting into chain-like relation between the above.