Αξιολόγηση παρεμβάσεων για ριζική ενεργειακή αναβάθμιση τυπικών υπαρχόντων κτιρίων κατοικίας
SubjectΠεριβαλλοντική μηχανική ; Environmental engineering ; Ενεργειακή ανάπτυξη -- Περιβαλλοντικές απόψεις ; Energy development -- Environmental aspects ; Κατοικίες ; Housing
This paper entitled "Evaluation of Interventions for Energy Performance Upgrade in Typical Residential Buildings" deals with the presentation and comparison of modern technologies and methodologies for energy performance upgrade in existing residential buildings. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility for radical energy performance upgrade of existing residential buildings and the comparative analysis of current packet interventions based on two criteria: economic efficiency and environmental performance. In other words, we take into account these two key factors in order to make the theoretical decision about which alternative energy intervention scenarios presented in the case studies we will choose. Specifically, the paper is divided into two parts: a theoretical and an experimental one. In the first place, we introduce the work setting forth the concerns and the need for this research, and the purpose of the study. Then, a brief literature review takes place, listing the main and current legislative frameworks of the EU policy for the environment, both in the short 2020 horizon in the pre - 2020 era (20-20-20 target) and long term until the post - 2020 era (roadmap 2050). Then there is reference to the Greek legislation and environmental policy and how it involves, and evolves along with, the build environment. Afterwards, we analyze and present the research methodology and the software TEE KENAK used in the experimental part of the calculations. Moreover, we portray the available building energy performance upgrade interventions for the residential sector, both in the energy systems and the building wrap, and we present some basic principles of financial investment evaluation criteria used in the analysis. In the experimental part of the study, with the application of the KENAK software, we assess the present situation of three existing residential buildings and we issue the corresponding Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). After the energy classification and the environmental evaluation of each building, we propose and design two separate upgrading intervention scenarios for each case. These two scenarios differ in the choice of the heating system. In these schemes, we first aim to assess the overall potential for reducing energy consumption and upgrade the energy performance rating of each existing building. Secondly we aim for economic evaluation of the interventions based on the capital cost and lower operating costs. Our final aim is to calculate the simplified payback period. Additionally, we evaluate each scenario based on a comparison between the new situation and the existing one. Finally, we select between the two scenarios by taking into account the economic and environmental benefits. The main conclusion of the research is that the Greek building stock is energy inefficient and, given the current economic situation, interest in the construction sector is only normal to have shifted to the modernization and upgrade of existing dwellings through refurbishment. The study results demonstrate that existing houses in the country are wasting energy and have very large scope for reducing energy requirements. More specifically, the investigation of radical energy performance upgrade in these three residential buildings examined in the present study showed that from a technological point of view it is possible to reduce energy consumption by 70-80%. Such upgrading of the building stock requires an investment of 130 euro/m2. Similarly, payback periods were calculated in the order of 11-12 years. Ultimately, based on the research findings, intervention packets with the largest reduction in energy costs of building do not necessary lead to a better energy and environmental performance.