Μικροβιακή αντοχή : ανάλυση των κλινικών και οικονομικών επιπτώσεων της κατανάλωσης αντιβιοτικών στην Ευρώπη
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) : an analysis of the clinical and economic impact of antibiotic consumption in Europe
KeywordsΑντιβιοτικά ; Παθογόνοι μικροοργανισμοί ; Λοιμώξεις ; Νοσοκομειακές λοιμώξεις ; Συνταγογράφηση αντιβιοτικών ; Κατανάλωση αντιβιοτικών στην κοινότητα ; Ενδονοσοκομειακή χρήση αντιβιοτικών ; Μικροβιακή αντοχή ; Κόστος μικροβιακής αντοχής ; Οικονομική αξιολόγηση
In recent years, our planet has been facing a silent but thriving threat that kills around 700,000 people every year worldwide. The reason is the uncontrolled increase of superbugs, i.e. pathogens that develop resistance to antibiotics (41). Every year in Europe, 33,000 people die from an infection caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a number that could be compared to the total number of passengers in 100 medium-sized airplanes - roughly (!) (11,19). In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has a huge burden on healthcare systems and society, with annual costs in healthcare costs and productivity losses estimated at around €1.5 billion (11,19). AMR is therefore a global issue that affects us all, as potentially we are all at risk, while the ever-increasing resistance developed by some microbes could lead medical science even to times before the discovery of penicillin when simple infections led to death (41). At the same time, the economic effects of AMR are also important, since according to studies, if no immediate actions are taken, the cost on a global production scale can reach 100 trillion dollars, according to even optimistic forecasts (25).. In this study, an attempt is made to analyze the clinical and economic impacts of AMR in Europe. Methods: Consumption and resistance data (in Europe) for 4 pathogens were analyzed and a model was developed to determine the correlation coefficient between antibiotic consumption and subsequent pathogen resistance; the results of the association were used to estimate the cost of infections by pathogen and the magnitude of the cost attributed to consumption of antibiotics. Results: Positive correlation coefficients emerged between the average consumption of antibiotics and the corresponding average resistance of pathogens, specifically correlation coefficient rates were: E. coli 0.5712, k. Pneumonia 0.5097, acinetobacter 0.4905 and p. aeruginosa 0.5128 while the cost due to the consumption of antibiotics for the above pathogens in Europe approaches 365 million. Conclusions: The human consumption of antibiotics is one of the most important factors enhancing antimicrobial resistance and has significant cost for the governments. The analysis of the present study – with its limitations – is a testament to the ever-increasing threat of AMR to the countries of Europe.