The crisis of Europe: differentiated integration as a tool of European governance and political management in times of crisis
This study examines the implementation of differentiated integration arrangement on the field of EU policy towards irregular migration. It searches the interrelation between the rise of Euroscepticism and the application of opt-outs and flexibility in core state powers, as the migration policy. The research seeks to deepen the conceptual framework of core state powers and the effects of growing politicization as well as the dynamics of differentiation within the EU. It analyzes the extend of differentiated integration which has been the main mode of integration in this policy field. It focuses on the cases of UK and Denmark, outlining the way that the mobilization of exclusive national identities raises the demand for differentiation. The study, however, advances the research by explaining the introduction of flexibility in the Commission’s proposals on the 2020 New Pact on Migration, through the lens of the aggregated level of politicization and the rise of right-wing Eurosceptic parties in many states of EU. While the treaty opt-outs have been related with the Euroscepticism since the Maastricht Treaty through the polarization provoked by referendums, the 2015 refugee crisis resulted in the EU institutions’ endorsement of flexibility within the Dublin system, a secondary legal rule.