H διαδικασία του Bunkering και το συναφές κόστος κίνησης σαν στοιχείο της ανταγωνιστικότητας ενός εμπορικού πλοίου
The operation of bunkering is a very important component in the shipping industry. In this dissertation, all aspects of Bunkering's operations and market are analyzed, as well as that it has to do with it. An extensive analysis is made of the fuels used in the current market. The way in which shipowners obtain fuel for their ships and how they can manage any risk from the constant fluctuations of the market. Also, special emphasis is placed on how shipping will develop in the future, using environmentally friendly fuels and the positive and negative impacts this will have on the global maritime market. This thesis begins with an analysis of marine fuels, presenting the types of fuels used primarily by ships. The design of the engines and how their design helps to optimize combustion according to the fuel used, and the opportunities that are open to the market and will be implemented in the future. An analysis of the market for marine fuels follows. It analyzes the participants in this market, the way they work and the factors that affect it. Starting from the way of order until the moment of delivery. The oil market, the factors that influence it in conjunction with the global economy are also analyzed. In the fourth chapter a complete reference in the institutional framework related to pollution from bunkering procedures, sanctions and developments over time are listed. The last chapter has to do with the future of shipping, alternative marine fuels that will replace existing ones in order to create more fuel-efficient fuels but also be compatible with the institutional framework of the future.