Η ανταγωνιστικότητα των επιχειρήσεων που ανήκουν σε cluster
KeywordsΑνταγωνιστικότητα ; Καινοτομία ; Διαμάντι του Porter ; Ναυτιλιακό cluster ; Competitiveness ; Innovation ; Porter’s diamond ; Maritime cluster
This paper focuses on the competitiveness of a business cluster and how it affects the shipping industry. The first part of the paper generally refers to the theory of business clusters and states a basic Porter’s definition of the business cluster. Also, it describes the general characteristics of the cluster. At the end of the first part of this paper, we describe the structure and the governance of a cluster. Specifically, the structure of the cluster refers to the five forces of Porter while the governance refers to all mechanisms of cooperation of the cluster’s members (De Langen, 2003). The second part focuses on the advantages offered by business clusters, such as the economies of scale. These economies lead to an increasing competitiveness of companies. This chapter ends in a catalogue of competitiveness strategies which are adopted by the firms. The third chapter describes the methods of study of a cluster and defines the variables we can use in this study. The main parameters we should study are based on the networks and partnerships, the innovation and research and development, the skills of employees and the financial results which come from the economies of scale. In this place, we should highlight that, in our research, we can use both qualitative and quantitative variables. Subsequently, the fourth chapter refers, more specifically, to the effects of the cluster. These effects are connected to agglomeration economies and they have local and national dimension. All the previous chapters are based on bibliographical research and thay result in a mathematical model of analysis of the influence of a business cluster to innovation and business competitiveness. The next part of the paper, specializes in the shipping industry and the competitiveness of this. Specifically, it shows and it describes the competitiveness using the Porter's diamond as a base of study. After this part, we describe the generalized European cluster and we summarize the competitiveness factors of a maritime cluster. In the end of the paper we present some case studies of European maritime clusters and we compare them with the Greek example of shipping using also the Porter's diamond.