Ναυτικοί κινητήρες και ναυτιλιακά καύσιμα
KeywordsΠετρέλαιο ; Κινητήρες μηχανών πλοίων ; Οξείδια πετρελαίου ; Διεθνής σύμβαση MARPOL ; Περιοχές ελέγχου εκπομπών ρύπων ; Φθορές κινητήρων ; Καταλυτικά σωματίδια ; Εναλλακτικές μορφές ενέργειας ; Oil ; Motor engines ; Petroleum oxides ; MARPOL International Convention ; SECAs ; Engine damage ; Catalytic particles ; Alternative energy types
Today, shipping industry is recognized to be a strong branch or asset of any country’s industry. This term (shipping) refers to all activities connected, related and supporting the transportation of people and goods by sea. Ships’ movement is provided by the fitted propulsion system, whereas on most occasions, internal combustion engines are being used. These engines are primarly designed to be operated by burning Fuel Oil. In this thesis, an extensive reference and detailed study will be made to the engines used on ships either as a main propulsion engine or as a diesel driven electric generating system, together with types of fuel oil used. Moreover, other engine types used on ships will be described, whereas an extensive reference will be made to the types of oil marine fuel used and the oil quality characteristics which are to be taken into consideration at all times. Subsequently, toxic pollutants, hazardous oxides emitted by ships’ engines, their consequences and methods of dealing with them will be referred making particular reference to the international MARPOL convention for the environmental protection and to the Security Control Areas (SECAs). Crude oil refining products as well as damage to marine engines from marine oil and its combustion products (f.e. oxides) are further described below. Particular mention is made for the catalytic particles (Catalytic Fines) which are added to fuel oil and they cause damage to engines moving parts. Furthermore, the importance of insurance in marine environment and particularly related to engines damages on account of burning off-spec fuels will be put forward. Last but not least, of great importance is the research of new ways / methods and to exploit alternative forms of energy for the propulsion of ships in order to avoid pollutant results on account of fuel oil burning.