Συμβολή στην εκτίμηση και αξιολόγηση περιβαλλοντικών και οικονομικών παραμέτρων των εφοδιαστικών αλυσίδων : η περίπτωση των βιοκαυσίμων
Πέτρου, Ευάγγελος, Χ.
KeywordsΕφοδιαστική αλυσίδα ; Ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας ; Καύσιμα -- Βιομηχανία και εμπόριο ; Ενέργεια και ενεργειακοί πόροι ; Βιοαιθανόλη ; Biofuels ; Fossil fuels ; Κλιματολογικές αλλαγές -- Οικονομικές απόψεις
Biofuels have been proposed amongst others as a solution for mitigating the climate change as well as for the problem of fossil fuels depletion. However, a controversy is pending about their sustainability. In this study we have evaluated the biofuels supply chains starting with a survey of their production and use pros and cons. The potential of Greek lignocellulosic agricultural wastes has been calculated and their use as alternative fuels in cement factories or as raw materials for bioethanol production is evaluated. The sustainability of five alternative systems producing ethanol, power and lignosulfonates or lignin (used as a geomaterial in civil engineering projects) using an enzymatic hydrolysis technology is also examined. For this purpose we have proposed and implemented a methodology based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process and a set of objective and subjective environmental, economic and societal criteria. This is the main contribution of the dissertation. Additionally the effect of the lignocellulosic agricultural wastes’ chemical composition which varies depending on the waste type (corn stover or cotton stalks) on the sustainability of ethanol production system has been examined. As the study claims, the systems producing ethanol and power or ethanol and lignin as a geomaterial are more sustainable than those producing ethanol and lignosulfonates. In addition it is better from a sustainable perspective to produce ethanol from corn stover than from cotton stalks. Finally, more work must be done in the future, among others, for enhancing the economics of systems producing ethanol and lignosulfonates and reducing their environmental impacts.