Οι επιπτώσεις των διαταραχών στα θαλάσσια choke points
KeywordsChokepoints ; Πετρέλαιο ; Αγωγοί πετρελαίου και φυσικού αερίου ; Oil ; Oil pipeline and natural gas
The purpose of this thesis is to study the implications of possible disruptions to the maritime choke points. Initially, is given a general definition of choke points with an analysis of key concepts and then are analyzed in detail the maritime choke points, as chosen by the enormous importance in the transportation of crude oil and natural gas. In particular the Strait of Hormuz, the Malacca Strait, the Suez Canal, the Strait of Bab El Mandeb, the Straits of Bosporus and Dardanelles (known in foreign literature as Turkish Straits), and finally the Panama Canal are analyzed. The second chapter is an introduction to the maritime market and presents the main sea routes that follow the vesselswhich transport oil and petroleum products and liquefied natural and petroleum gas. In the next chapter, a reference is made to the causes of a disruption of safe transit through the choke points, which are none other than their geomorphological and natural hazards, piracy and political instability in these areas which can cause also military conflicts. In the fourth chapter, the implications of the disruptions tomaritime choke points are analyzed which are selected for this study, at a general and specific level, as well as in short and long term. Finally, case studies are made of the effects of disruption to the Hormuz Strait and Malacca Strait. In the last chapter, alternative modes are given which are none other than the oil and gas pipelines, as well as some alternative routes that increase, however, the time and cost of transportation. Therefore, two real case studiesare described one with a vessel bypassig the Suez Canal and the second one the Panama Canal, then we calculate the profit of a shipping company's vessel from crossing these two straits opposed to the gain arised from the detour of the vessel via the Cape of Good Hope. In conclusion, the significant importance of maritime choke points lies in the fact that about 63% of the 90.1 million barrels of the oil produced per day in 2013 (ie 56.5 million barrels per day)moved on maritime routes and 53.2% of seaborne trade passed by the mentioned chokepoints. Moreover, the same yearoil tankers accounted for 30% of the world's shipping by deadweight tonnage in 2013, according to data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).