Στρατηγικές ανάπτυξης σε χώρες της κεντρικής & ανατολικής Ευρώπης: η περίπτωση του τουριστικού κλάδου
Development strategies for transitional economies: the case of the tourism sector in central and eastern European countries
Stoicea, Roxana Lucia
SubjectΤουρισμός ; Διοίκηση και οργάνωση ; Ευρώπη, Ανατολική ; Ευρώπη, Κεντρική ; Tourism -- Economic aspects -- Europe
The focus of this dissertation is on government strategies toward transformation and achieving better economic results, in Central and Eastern European countries in transition. The study includes an examination of the issues surrounding the top-down Shock Therapy transition measures versus the bottom-up Gradual Reform set of policies adopted by governments in these countries, and the results recorded in one economic sector - tourism - over a fifteen year period of transformation. The Shock Therapy strategy highlights the independence and mutually supportive and interactive character of economic relationships, implying that reforms should be introduced simultaneously in a top-down manner (practically enforced by the state). The Gradual Reform strategy implies a gradual change in the economic system congruent with society and responding to economic and social needs. According to the gradual theory, change must be bottom-up so the people do not reject the reforms or are unable to adjust. This dissertation contributes to the shock therapy and gradualism transition theories, to the studies of the particularities of tourism in former communist countries and to the studies of transition from a centrally planned to a free-market tourism sector, by addressing three questions about the effectiveness of transition policies adopted in CEE former communist countries. Each question analyzes a number of factors and identifies the result of their implementation. Integrating these theories and supporting them with real economic performance results, this study shows that the nature of transition government policies is such that countries behave as members of two groups, according to the transition model they adopted. The results recorded by the countries in each group indicate that the application of one strategy, which constitutes the Shock Therapy transition model, at a rapid pace, leads to better performance of an industry (e.g. tourism) over the first fifteen years of transition.