P και Ι clubs και απαιτήσεις ζημιών ρύπανσης θαλάσσιου περιβάλλοντος
SubjectΘαλάσσια ασφάλιση ; Θάλασσα -- Μόλυνση -- Δίκαιο και νομοθεσία ; Θάλασσα -- Μόλυνση -- Μέτρα ασφαλείας ; Ναυτικά ατυχήματα ; Περιβαλλοντική πολιτική
The objective of this thesis is to analyze the current market conditions in the mutual insurance area and the position of P&I clubs, by providing up to date information concerning the claim handling processes and the defenses used. P&I Clubs have provided mutually born cover for ship-owner against third-party claims for over a century. The P&I Clubs are incorporated associations of ship-owner who agree to insure each other in respect of specified risks arising from the operation of their vessels. The first P&I Club were formed in 1855, which during the course of time change its name into what is now the Britannia P&I Club. Most of Clubs belong to the International Group of P&I Club and the most participate in joint arrangements for pooling and reinsurance for claims. P&I Clubs cover for liabilities resulting from Oil pollution accidents, not only the clean up expenses, but also costs incurred in order to avoid or minimize pollution of risk of pollution.