Overview of cultural models in projects: focus on organizations and virtual teams
Επισκόπηση των πολιτιστικών μοντέλων σε έργα: έμφαση στις οργανώσεις και τις εικονικές ομάδες
The aim of this paper is to identify the cultural dimensions that can be found in a multicultural project team and help project managers become effective project leaders. People learn how to interact and behave to different situations from the society they are nurtured in. By analyzing seven different cultural models, we try to examine all the important cultural dimensions that can been found in a group of individuals. Their attitude toward all these dimensions indicates the value system and the social structure they are familiar with. These behavioral patterns will help the project manager learn how to lead a group consisted of diverse cultures. In order to determine how a project manager will manage a multicultural team, we create three categories of leadership styles. Each leadership category is consisted of similar leadership styles, and we categorize them in accordance with the way leaders act toward their inferiors. We present the characteristics of every category, their connection with several cultural dimensions and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we try to identify the challenges a project manager faces in a multicultural working surface. These challenges, contribute to our exploration of the team goals a project manager must accomplish. Team goals and team challenges are translated to practices for the project manager, so as to have a successful project team and become an effective leader. After analyzing the cultural dimensions and establishing the challenges, goals and practices of an effective leader, we create 15 case studies. Each case study demonstrates different issues found in a multicultural team. After every case study we conduct a case study analysis to examine the issues and determine the best approach to resolve them.