Οι τάσεις στη liner ναυτιλία των εμπορευματοκιβωτίων και οι επιπτώσεις στο λιμενικό ανταγωνισμό : η περίπτωση της Ανατολικής Ασίας
KeywordsHub-and-spoke μεταμορφώσεις ; Λιμάνια Ανατολικής Ασίας ; Δείκτες συγκέντρωσης ; Liner shipping ; East Asia container terminals ; Concentration indices
As part of the development of containerized liner shipping, there is a shift of transport companies to achieve economies of scale through the construction of Mega-ships. This phenomenon has resulted on an increase in the average capacity of containerships from 1.750 TEUs in 2000 to 3,500 in 2014. The largest ships are mainly used for the trade route of East Asia to North Europe with an average capacity of 11.500 TEU. Extra-slow steaming is suggested for 20% savings in the total travel cost and 40% less CO2 emissions. There is a tendency for liner carriers to proceed with horizontal and vertical integrations thus controlling 83% of the total capacity while global terminal operators are trying to shape an oligopolistic market so as to face carriers’ strategy. In addition, hub-and-spoke transshipment is prevalent in port industry of liner shipping while accounting for 25% of world total throughput, most of which takes place in East Asia. Thus, current research is focused on East Asia container terminals market taking into consideration that it accounts about 50% of total world throughput. For the period of 2005-2014, market indicates moderate concentration with continuous downward trend. By calculating the concentration indices “CR8, CR4, HHI and Shift Share”, we depict a transfer from oligopoly to monopolistic competition showing that reduction of concentration is due to the underperformance of the top-rated ports and the Japanese ones. On top of that, port traffic is transferred to the North China ports around Bohai Bay, Ningbo, Ho Chi Minh and Chinese ports that have recently entered the market.