Ο ρόλος των συμβάσεων ναυτικής εργασίας στο πρόβλημα της ναυτικής απασχόλησης
KeywordsΝαυτική εργασία ; Συμβάσεις ναυτικής εργασίας ; Ναυτική απασχόληση ; Maritime labour ; Maritime Labour Convention (2006) ; Maritime employment
The aim of this postgraduate thesis was to study the issues related to the problem of maritime employment in both EU and Greece, which consists essentially of the reduction in demand for seafarers and the substantial shortage of ship officers, mainly due to the replacement of European and Greek seafarers by low cost seafarers from third countries, the low interest of young people to enter the maritime professions due to the social devaluation of the profession, as well as, the complex and vague framework of the working and living conditions on board ships that prevailed over the last decades and until the implementation, in 2013, of the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) 2006. The Convention defines a common framework of minimum labour and living standards of seafarers, which now serves as a base for other maritime labour conventions, applicable to both ships under EU national flags and flags of convenience, as long as the flag state of the ship has ratified MLC 2006. Then, the thesis focused on the analysis and comparison of the main terms and conditions of the Conventions in use, and on evaluating the role and contribution of these conventions to the improvement of the maritime employment problem. The study found that the implementation of the maritime labour conventions have improved the working and living conditions of seafarers, especially of those working on substandard ships under flags of convenience, but this was mainly achieved due to the very strict compliance regulations applied at all levels. Also, there is a trend of improved social perception regarding the seafaring professions, indicated by the increase in demand for maritime studies and the increase of retention rates of officers. However, a significant increase in demand for seafarers in EU and Greece, requires firstly, to implement changes in the terms of the Conventions, in order to eliminate the wide disparities that continue to exist in some areas, such as seafarers’ salaries and the manning scales on ships of various types, secondly, to impose even greater enforcement of compliance with the terms of the Conventions at all levels and, finally, to implement a set of selected actions, to strengthen maritime employment, with the contribution and cooperation of shipowners, seafarers’ unions and the government in each member-state of EU, including Greece.