Οι αναπτυξιακές, διαρθρωτικές, κοινωνικές και θεσμικές επιδράσεις των προγραμμάτων προσαρμογής (μνημονίων) στην Ελλάδα
KeywordsΟικονομικές κρίσεις ; Ελλάδα ; Μνημόνια ; Οικονομική ύφεση ; Οικονομική ανάπτυξη ; Ανταγωνιστικότητα ; Πρότυπα παραγωγής ; Economic crisis ; Greece ; Memorandum ; Economic recession ; Economic development ; Competitiveness ; Production models
The sovereign debt crisis in Greece turned into a generalized crisis, with particularly serious development, structural, social and institutional effects, apart from the effects of the financial and government sectors of the economy. After 2009, the country entered a prolonged recession, which caused divestiture destruction of invested capital, weltered loss, unemployment, dismantling of labor institutions, financial breakdown, breakdown of social cohesion etc. It is undeniable fact that the vicious circles of the recession are over seven years in development, which no safe way out of them. Until now they have applied three (3) structural policy programs through three Memorandums which largely imposed by the country’s creditors, but without positive results. The main objectives of the adaptation program are not achieved. Instead, the country still has a high public debt, insufficient primary surpluses, economic stagnation, low extroversion, high unemployment, continued reduction of social spending, institutional instability and political uncertainty, and has virtually stopped financing of the economy. The causes of the Greek drama are multiple. These are relate to the size of the accumulated problems, the chronic weakness of international competitiveness, the introversion of the economy, the counterproductive role of the state in the economy, the resistance of Greek society in adjustment etc. Due, however, the erroneous economic policy Memorandum, which, inter alia, contained no counter-cyclical intervention for breaking the recessionary process. Also important is the responsibility of the domestic political system who failed to promote the necessary changes and reforms to improve the investment environment and the competitiveness of the Greek economy. For the country's exit from the crisis and the achievement of sustainable development, the key condition to mitigate the costs of adjustment, is the development and promotion of a new production model for the Greek economy towards the production of quality-oriented products and services of the international markets and the attracting investment. But this requires political and social consensus, and consistent implementation of a broad set of reforms to modernize the public administration and the establishment of a competitive economy.