Η ναυτιλία στην Αρκτική και ο Κώδικας των Πόλων : μπορούν οι νέοι δρόμοι να ανταγωνιστούν τις συμβατικές οδούς;
KeywordsΑρκτική ναυτιλία ; Κλιματικές αλλαγές ; Κλιματική αλλαγή ; Αρκτικές οδοί ; Κώδικας των Πόλων ; Συμβατικά περάσματα ; Arctic shipping ; Climate change ; Arctic routes ; Polar Code ; Conventional routes
The melting of sea ice around the Arctic region and the constant rising of temperature, resulting from the natural climate warming as well as from human activities, leads to growing interest for this territory, as the shorter distances and the abundant subsurface create business development opportunities attracting investment funds, while, at the same time, they become the subject for scientific research. Traversing through the Arctic, which once seemed impossible, has now become possible via the Arctic Routes. There are three routes available for crossing the Arctic: The Northern Sea Route, the Northwest Passage and the Transpolar Sea Route. The Arctic Routes are actually complex formations laying among the three continents (Europe, Asia and North America) and they are the cause for various competing interests among Arctic, as well as, non-Arctic states. Moreover, it is an environment with special geomorphological and climate – weather conditions that create unique risks and the need for particular attention, in order to ensure safe navigation and environmental protection. For this reason, there is an urgent need for a regulatory framework, which will define the rules for sailing and operating in the Arctic waters, which actually has already been implemented with the Polar Code. By applying the provisions of this Code, the sustainable use of these new routes is ensured, introducing a new era to the global shipping industry, thus creating the necessary conditions for the competitiveness of these passages against the conventional routes through the Suez and the Panama Canal. Finally, after a thorough comparative analysis of the two alternatives, it is assumed that, at present and with the current data, no rivalry issues against the old routes are raised, since the new passages could be used simultaneously with the traditional ones to relieve traffic and take advantage of the generated synergies.