Συγκριτική αξιολόγηση συστημάτων υγείας Γερμανίας και Ηνωμένου Βασιλείου
Comparative evaluation of the healthcare systems of Germany and United Kingdom
KeywordsΓερμανία ; Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο ; Δείκτες υγείας ; Σύστημα υγείας ; Εθνικό Σύστημα Υγείας (ΕΣΥ) ; Μπίσμαρκ ; Μπέβεριτζ ; Γενικός γιατρός ; Ειδικός γιατρός ; Χρηματοδότηση ; Κοινωνική ασφάλιση ; Γενική κυβέρνηση ; Ιδιωτική ασφάλιση ; Ιδιωτικές πληρωμές ; Δαπάνες υγείας ; Αμοιβές γιατρών ; Στάτα ; Παλινδρόμηση ; Germany ; United Kingdom ; Health indicators ; Healthcare system ; National Healthcare System (NHS) ; Bismarck ; Beveridge ; General practitioner ; Specialist medical practitioner ; Funding ; Social security ; General government ; Private insurance ; Out of pocket payments ; Health expenditure ; Remuneration of doctors ; Stata ; Regression
In the frames of this paper, there is an effort of a presentation and comparative evaluation of Germany’s and United Kingdom’s healthcare systems. These countries were chosen for two reasons. First of all, because of the high level of healthcare they have achieved for their citizens by ensuring high efficiency and equal access to everyone. Secondly, because they are representative countries of the two health systems, Bismarck (in Germany) and Beveridge (in the United Kingdom) model, that dominate Europe. In the theoretical overview of the subject (chapters one to four), there is a presentation of the basic characteristics of the two countries, the population health status which is achieved by the use of some basic health indicators, the historical evolution of the health systems since the Industrial Revolution to our days and the main reforms that took place the recent years. Furthermore, the evolution of health expenditures is studied and a comparison between the two countries, concerning the different types of expenditures in 2011, takes place. Finally, the ways and the sources of funding of the Germany’s and United Kingdom’s health systems are analysed, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of each system. The research part of this paper, in which data come from the O.E.C.D.’s database are used, is an empirical valuation study over the way that the total health expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) funded by the public sector is affected by the number of general practitioners (per 1000 citizens), the number of specialist medical practitioners (per 1000 citizens), the total number of hospital beds (per 1000 citizens), the computed tomography scanners (per 1000000 citizens) and the magnetic resonance imaging units (per 1000000 citizens) and the application of the multiple linear model in other countries cases. According to the results, the model applies to countries, such as Czech Republic or Italy, where the health system is Bismarck or Beveridge type and does not apply to countries, such as USA, where the health system is liberal type and it is mainly based on the private payment.