Εξωτερικές οικονομίες (ρύποι και ατυχήματα) της ναυτιλίας
Externalities (emissions and accidents) from shipping
Χριστοδούλου, Αναστασία Γεώργιος
SubjectΠλοία -- Περιβαλλοντικές απόψεις ; Πλοία -- Κανονισμοί ασφαλείας -- Διοίκηση και οργάνωση ; Περιβαλλοντική πολιτική ; Ατμοσφαιρική μόλυνση
"External costs of greenhouse gas emissions from shipping: assessment and evaluation of various instruments to internalize these costs". The title of the thesis gives in a few words the tone of those examined in the following pages.The issue of concern to this thesis is to investigate the appropriate technical, operational and market-based instruments to address greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from ships. More specifically, the instruments analyzed and evaluated are: the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), the Maritime Emission Trading Scheme (METS) and the Global levy scheme on marine bunker fuel.This thesis is based on two axes: on the one hand, the mechanisms with GHG-emissions reduction potential from ships are evaluated regarding: a) their environmental effectiveness, b) their economic efficiency, c) their provision of incentives for technological change and d) their practical implementation (qualitative research). On the other hand, an extensive research was carried out (quantitative - statistical) with questionnaires to all shipping companies operating in Greece, through which were obtained for the first time conclusions about the way the shipping industry, essentially the Greek shipping industry, faces the adoption of the various possible technical, operational and market-based instruments for the reduction of GHG emissions from its fleet.The results of this survey reflect the environmental behavior and practices regarding the maritime GHG emissions of a representative part of the Greek shipping industry, as our sample consists of shipping companies of various sizes, which are involved in various sectors of the shipping industry. Given the size and importance of the Greek shipping industry in the international maritime field, the results of this research present a special significance, since they could be further analyzed and taken into account for the achievement of the compliance of the shipping industry with any future technical, operational or market-based instruments for the reduction of the GHG emissions from shipping.