Διερεύνηση των χαρακτηριστικών που επηρεάζουν τη δαπάνη επιβατών κρουαζιέρας στην Ελλάδα
Investigation of the characteristics that affect cruise passengers' expenditures in Greece
Παπαδοπούλου, Γεωργία Χαράλαμπος
This present dissertation explores the factors that motivate cruise passengers to spendmoney during their trip. Initially, a detailed description of the cruise industry at globaland national levels is made and the contribution to the formation of the GrossDomestic Product is determined. The analysis of demand for the cruise is describingat national and regional level (Mediterranean, America, Europe, etc.) but incombination with the demographic characteristics, income, occupation, family andother passengers‟ characteristics as well.The focus of the dissertation is the analysis of the cruise passengers‟ characteristicsthat affect the level of expenditure for goods and/or services during the cruise triponboard the cruise ship and in transit ports. For this purpose, a field research wasconducted to cruise passengers who started their journey from the port of Piraeus. Theparticipants came from different countries, belonging to different age groups and haddifferent family and economic profile. The questionnaire focused mainly on the levelof the passengers‟ expenditures in the Greek islands and onboard and therefore theywere asked to complete the questionnaire during their return to the port of Piraeus.The research carried out, gathered primary data and can be categorized in exploratoryapproach methods, and sought to identify the characteristics that affect the cruisepassengers‟ expenses. A quantitative research was followed through which criteriawas considered, such as the complexity of the questionnaire, the amount ofinformation requested, the reliability of information, the representativeness of thesample, the time of the survey and the cost of the research. The completion of thesequestionnaires offered primary data and was the instrument on which the recording ofthe data and the analysis of all the factors involved in the cruise passengers‟ spendingwas based.In order to draw conclusions a series of statistical analyses was followed. Themethodology developed in this investigation, after the tests of independence of thevariables, aims to help to the answer of specific questions about the characteristicsthat influence the level of expenditures of the cruisers in Greece. In particular, thepassenger profile, the characteristics of the trip, the reasons of the preference of thisparticular cruise trip in the Aegean islands, the level of expenditure both onboard the cruise ship and the transit ports, and the characteristics of the passengers affecting theexpenditure during the trip were investigated. We used non-parametric methods ofstatistical analysis, namely a special category of variables, the categorical variables,which are widespread in social surveys for measuring attitudes and opinions. Ourdependent variable was the total expenditures (TE) and then the passengers‟characteristics that affect the level of expenditure during the cruise were highlighted,either onboard the cruise ship or in the ports of call. In order to conduct theconclusions, the method of logistic regression was chosen, which determines theeffects of the multiple independent variables presented simultaneously to predict therelationship they have with the dependent variable.In order to investigate the characteristics of passengers and their attitude forexpenditures, both in total and in each itinerary separately, we separated our sampleinto three general categories.Prior to the construction of our final model, statistically forecasting models wereproduced that were separated into three categories. The first is related to the entiresample (507 passengers); the second to the sample made 3-days cruise and the third tothe sample made 8-days cruise. The findings of the above investigation, as wasseparated, showed that the variables that affect the incentives of passengers to cruisewas the acquaintance of new destinations and people, visiting places with historicalsignificance, the previous visit of friends/relatives, the acquaintance with the Greekculture and gaining new experiences.The choice of the passenger to experience a long cruise (8-days) was depended ontheir income, marital status, the visit to Greece only for the cruise, the cost of holiday(except the cruise trip) and the level of expenditure onboard the cruise ship. The levelof expenditure by passengers in the transit ports was affected by the amount spentonboard the ship, the duration of their holidays and the visits to more islands.Correspondingly, the level of expenditure onboard the cruise ship was affected by thetype of the cabin, the level of expenditure in transit ports and the excursions offeredby the company at the ports.Then, a model that connects the main features with the cost of the cruise passengerswas determined. These characteristics are the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the passengers‟ income, their marital status, the way of the information of the cruise andtheir ethnicity. With the help of the model, the quantification of the influence of eachof the determinants to the consumption expenditure per passenger category becamepossible.