Η αγορά φαρμάκου στην Ελλάδα.
The pharmaceutical Market in Greece
Σακαλή, Παρασκευή Χριστίνα
SubjectPharmaceutical industry -- Greece ; Market surveys ; Φαρμακευτική βιομηχανία και εμπόριο -- Ελλάδα
This work was produced as part of the postgraduate program 'Management of health units and services', Department of Economics, University of Piraeus, during the academic study period 2011-2013. Primary objective of the study was the pharmaceutical market. The nature of the medicine as a good is special, because it is a social but also a consumer good. This nature makes it particularly interesting. The production and marketing of medicines is one of the most regulated sectors of the economy, because of the institutional framework established by constricting the production, handling, storage, quality, competition, pricing, prescription and market conditions generally. The pharmaceutical industry has certain features in common with those of other industries intensive in technology and innovation based on large expenditures for research and development (R & D). The domestic market is dominated by subsidiaries of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, which in the majority are active in representing pharmaceutical products imported from the companies in the group to which they belong and do not exhibit productive activity. While some of them make production in Greece in foreign facilities the domestic pharmaceutical market is fragmented and inefficient. The demand for the drug is affected by many factors such as the age composition of the population, the environment, eating habits, socio-economic and demographic factors etc. Over the last years, the increased demand for medicines has led to increased healthcare costs and therefore to increased drug costs in our country. Main source of funding for health expenditure is the government budget combined with insurance and private entries. The difficulties of last year make it imperative for reducing pharmaceutical expenditure. Measures to manage offer include: price control, the determination of operating and profit margins of the pharmaceutical warehouses and production, patents and intellectual property rights, the restriction of advertisement etc. Measures to manage demand include: proper and rational prescribing, economic evaluation, use of appropriate IT systems in prescribing, prescribing to an active substance, generic, several non-prescribed drugs (otc), increasing the rate of participation insured etc. Despite the tendency to reduce the costs of international pharmaceutical care, it has been understood that the only prospect for the future of the industry is given by innovation. The pharmaceutical sector faces several problems. Some of them are: the frequent changes in the pricing and the compensation of medicines, the large debts of the government to the pharmaceutical companies, the great bureaucracy regarding the approval process for marketing authorization, problems in R & D (research and development) and innovation , a delayed access to innovative medicines, difficulty in monitoring the medication prescribing and the lack of an organized system between doctors, pharmacists, and pharmaceutical companies in order to profit. Key words: pharmaceutical market, global pharmaceutical industry, greek pharmaceutical industry, conditions of demand and offer, pharmaceutical expenditure, increased drug cost, prescription system, reduce measures, research and development, innovation, problems.