Καρκίνος του τραχήλου της μήτρας διάγνωση, θεραπεία και επιπτώσεις στα οικονομικά της υγείας. = Cervical cancer diagnosis, Treatment and impact at health economics.
Cancer of the cervix is the world's second most common cancer in women. Primarily responsible for cancer in the cervix is the human papilloma virus (HPV). Only one in four cancer cases in the cervix can be diagnosed early but it is possible to diagnose precancerous changes in cervical cells (dysplasia) long before they move on and become cancer. Cancer in the cervix can be detected by physical examination and confirmed with laboratory, imaging and special diagnostic tests. The cytology smears, also known as test Pap, is the most common test to prevent cervical cancer. In recent years, two vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix have made their appearance and till now they give encouraging results. However, it should take several years to see their effects in preventing cancer of the cervix. Eminent importance of early detection of cancer in the cervix is the population screening (screening test). Very few countries worldwide have organized programs of screening, while discussions are underway to integrate the vaccination program and the reduction of retirement age of women tested in conjunction with possible cost implications of screening. Treatment of cancer in the cervix involves treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The cost of young women who are subject to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is clearly higher than that the cost for older women where hormonal therapy is usually used. An organized screening program for cervical cancer, appears to be cost efficient in the health system while reduces the incidence of occurrence of cancer and high treatment costs. The cost of treating cancer in the cervix includes hospitalizations and out-patient treatment, out-patient hospital visits, surgery, radiotherapy, laboratory tests, radiological tests, medications and home care service. The cost of care for those diagnosed with local and regional cancer is slightly more than the cost of care outside of the initial and final stage. The adoption of the ordinary management of patients with cancer of the cervix as an outpatient can relieve the hospital sector by the stress of acute care and improve the quality of health services. In Greece, there is a lack of an organized screening program and lack of public awareness about the importance and benefits of the control.