Διεθνές εμπόριο και οικονομική γεωγραφία. Προσφορά και ζήτηση αγαθών στις ναυτιλιακές αγορές
Μανουδάκη, Μαρία Δ.
SubjectΔιεθνές εμπόριο ; Παγκοσμιοποίηση ; Γεωγραφία, Οικονομική ; Οικονομικές κρίσεις -- 21ος αιώνας
The paternity of the term "globalization" , which is used at least since 1944, attributed to Levitt Theodore (1983), professor at Harvard Business School, who says that globalization is the empowerment of all parameters (economy, communication, etc.) which until recently (a few decades) sought to have boundaries within a state - prostate. Parameters tend to be released and diffuse, following globalization, is trade, social structure, technology, culture, political system, knowledge etc. The analytical framework of Held and McGrew (1999) is structured in three major views based on the historical analysis of globalization: a view on pro-globalization, the skeptical view and position on transformation. Supporters of the first view, consider that "contemporary globalization defines a new era in which people are subjected to more and more sectors of the global market." On the other hand, proponents of the skeptical view insist that globalization as a phenomenon, keeps the overall characteristics, because the only thing that change is the scope and magnitude of the phenomenon. Finally, proponents of the latter view, proponents of transformation, come to reconcile the aforementioned expressing opinions that the driving force of rapid and widespread social, political and economic changes is globalization. As we can understand, interdependence and interaction terms linking globalization and international trade because the term globalization is often used in the argument for the need of a new type of global hegemony in the world. The British economist David Ricardo analyzed the benefits of international trade (known as the theory of comparative advantage) and these are one of the oldest and most renowned economic principles. Ricardo proved with irrefutable way, that each country has to specialize in what they produce better (or more efficient) because thereby improving global welfare. With regard to the relationship of productivity - output, very important findings in literature can be characterized in terms of Roberts and Tybout 1997, Clerides and al 1998, Bernard and Jensen 1999, Van Biesebroeck 2006, Alvarez and Lopez 2005, under which exporters are more productive than non-exporters. There are two mechanisms that can explain this difference. The first relates to the criterion of self- selection and the second reason is that through exports gain the privilege of acquiring both experience and new knowledge.