Κλιματική αλλαγή και αρκτική ναυτιλία
Στολάκης, Δημήτριος Α.
It is common knowledge (in particular over the last decades), that the earth experiences a climate change, which, amidst others, has significantly impacts on economy and society. It is widely accepted that climate change has been mainly caused by human activities, such activities of the maritime industry. Although the ships are considered as the most energy efficient transport means, their emissions constantly increase. In 2007, international shipping represented the 2.7% of the total CO2 emissions worldwide. (NB: CO2 is one of the greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol). The Arctic is a special area due to its natural characteristics, as well as due to the fact that it constitutes an index for climate change. Climate changes in the Arctic area will be more intense and obvious. Climate change has led to the creation of a new -perhaps- crossroad for the maritime industry, since the melting of the ice favors certain sea-routes of the ships and their access to certain areas. Due to the complexity and the particularities of the Arctic area, and the lack of adequate infrastructure, increased cooperation between the Arctic states, as well as more studies and investments are needed, so as to establish a new order in the Arctic area, which will have a significant impact on world trade (90% of world trade is carried by the international shipping industry).