Προκλήσεις και προοπτικές για ένα βιώσιμο υδάτινο περιβάλλον υπό το πρίσμα της διεθνούς και ευρωπαϊκής κοινότητας
Challenges and prospects regarding the sustainable governance of the marine environment under the existing international and european legislative framework
KeywordsΘαλάσσια ρύπανση ; Διεθνής Ναυτιλιακός Οργανισμός ; Συνδιάσκεψη Στοκχόλμης ; Συνδιάσκεψη Ρίο ; Συνδιάσκεψη Γιοχάνεσμπουργκ ; Ατζέντα 2030 - Στόχοι βιώσιμης ανάπτυξης
This thesis attempts to give a holistic view regarding the attitude of the global shipping community, towards the environmental risks that the aquatic environment is facing, with the ultimate goal to achieve sustainability. An important question to be answered is, why is the international maritime crisis still there? Marine pollution chronologically and semantically is the major source of danger for aquatic ecosystems. A crucial source of marine pollution is the activity of cargo ships. This is why the International Maritime Organization has taken drastic measures to reduce marine pollution. It is also worth noting the interest of the United Nations in entirely alleviating maritime dangers. From the Stockholm Conference, where UN Member States were urged to assist the scientific community by collecting data on marine pollutants, all the way to the Johannesburg Conference, we see actions adopting a holistic approach to combat a variety of maritime environmental issues. Although the participation of Member States increased, the results were not satisfactory in any of the past conferences mostly due to the voluntary nature of the actions. Unsustainable human activities and overexploitation of ocean resources continued, causing ecosystem degradation and reduction of marine biodiversity. The United Nations, recognizing the rising global ocean crisis, declared in 2015 the new Development Goals for the 2030 Agenda (ten goals for sustainable use and conservation of the oceans). The present thesis is based on an extensive bibliographic analysis, aiming to achieve a more realistic approach, by introducing the concept of effective international ocean government, since the existing framework is considered heterogeneous. The European Union can be a beacon of hope to reshape a sustainable and universal plan for ocean government, as it has the right guarantees, such as valuable experience in maritime affairs. That is why, the announcement of the agenda for international ocean governance, demonstrates a credible attitude towards contemporary ocean challenges, fulfilling almost all of its commitments to date.