HPV και καρκίνος τραχήλου της μήτρας: οικονομική αξιολόγηση της ασθένειας
HPV and cervical cancer: economic assessment of the disease
KeywordsHPV ; Καρκίνος τραχήλου μήτρας ; Προσυμπτωματικός έλεγχος ; HPV εμβόλιο ; Ανάλυση κόστους - αποτελεσματικότητας ; Ποιοτικά προσαρμοσμένα έτη ζωής ; Κόστος ασθένειας
Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women globally and the second most frequent cancer in women between 15-44 years old. Every year approximately 535,000 women develop this type of cancer and 266,000 of them die. HPV is responsible for almost 95% of the cases of cervical cancer, also genital warts and precancerous lesions. The case study of this dissertation is to analyze cervical cancer that is predominantly caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The purpose of this dissertation is to understand important definitions in health economics and cervical cancer analysis, which is a disease concerning mostly women, who are more affected by HPV. The first part of the dissertation includes an analysis on the nature of the human papillomavirus and its relationship to cervical cancer. Information is being provided on the diagnostic gynaecological tests carried out in order to detect any lesions that may lead to cancer and treatments the patient should take in case of an atypia or an abnormality. The second part includes an analysis on the current situation in Greece concerning perceptions about the virus, the acceptance rate of the preventive measure of vaccination, methods that are most effective in detecting different lesions, the frequency of exposure to the virus and the prevalence of cancer. The reasons for the virus's greatest incidence in the country, the most frequent types of virus, and the ages with the highest rates of virus infection are also analyzed in this part. The third part deals with the treatment of the CC in low and middle-income countries. Initially, some statistics are presented on the countries that are mostly affected by the disease. Then, the existence of massive prevention and diagnosis programs are discussed and finally, population coverage data are given on vaccination and screening for these countries. In the last part, economic terms are explained for being used in economic evaluation and in particular in the economic effectiveness of medical interventions of the disease. Afterwards, various characteristics of the quality of life of patients are represented as a measure to assess the effectiveness of a medical intervention in their overall health. Thereafter, the way of pricing for preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic methods is discussed and also the costs are estimated. Finally, the most effective ways of vaccination and screening strategies are presented through literature, with the contribution of the cost-effectiveness analysis of different strategies.