Χρηματοδότηση της καινοτομίας σε Ευρώπη & ΗΠΑ
In today's world, globalization and rapid technological developments impose new ways of managing entrepreneurship and redefining business operations. Nobody can deny that innovation is the answer to the dizzying pace with which these developments are running so that the company can survive in such a pressing and competitive environment. Besides, there are few examples in the world where innovative business actions and new ideas have pushed many businesses out of the quagmire or raised new ones and led to the production of products capable of coping with the demanding demands of today's society. But as the scene changes in the economy, the more intense is the need for change and innovation management, which requires a renewed way of thinking and forces companies to open up the processes of innovation. The trend towards open innovation strategies is a genuine phenomenon and is becoming increasingly widespread in the business world. This has consequences for the ecosystem and for businesses. These consequences are not yet clear. Probably some businesses take it as an opportunity to introduce themselves into new value chains while others are forced to change their value chain by acting as competitors in existing businesses. The sure thing is that the business environment is changing and the change brought about by this new trend creates intense conversations that indicate that something interesting is there. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate precisely this correlation between the developments of new entrepreneurship in the modern world through innovative actions. Apart from this section, however, a very important part of the study also includes the financing of all these innovative actions, outlining the ways, tools and strategies that are being adopted in terms of precisely financing innovation. In the first chapter of the study an extensive analysis of the concept of innovation is made. The definition of the concept is described and at the same time the categories in which it is distinguished are listed. This chapter also refers to the benefits derived from adopting innovative actions, whether economic or purely entrepreneurial. The second chapter is a thorough analysis of the sources and methods of funding that can be taken to carry out innovative actions. More specifically, the study focuses on the sources from which funds can be raised to carry out investment efforts, which are divided into two main categories: internal sources of finance and external sources. Internal sources refer either to the entrepreneurs themselves who take the risk of investing, or to their social environment, such as family and society. On the other hand, external sources of finance make extensive reference to a range of tools that can be used to finance innovative actions such as loans, venture capital, business angels, etc. In order to provide the fullest possible information and understanding of the concept and especially of the operation of innovative actions as well as of how to finance them, chapters three and four provide data and analyze the innovative business environment as it is formed in the two largest markets in the world : in the USA. and in Europe. Data on how existing or newly created businesses can be funded from various sources, whether public or private is provided, and in these two chapters a significant part of the analysis also covers the objectives to be achieved through its financing innovation. Work is completed with the fifth chapter, which presents an econometric analysis about the impact of R&D expenses, combined with other variables, that have in the effectiveness and efficiency of European and American industries.