Αξιοποίηση του μοντέλου κινήτρων ARCS και συνεργατικών τεχνικών για τη δημιουργία ενός μικτού περιβάλλοντος μάθησης βασικών εννοιών προγραμματισμού μέσα από έννοιες STEAM
KeywordsΗλεκτρονική μάθηση ; Συναισθηματικοί παράγοντες ; Κίνητρα ; Απόδοση ; Αποτελεσματικότητα ; Μοντέλο χρονικής συνέχειας ; Συνεργατική μάθηση ; Κοινωνικοί παράγοντες ; Γνωστική μαθητεία ; Cognitive learning ; ARCS model
Master thesis is based on research pillars such as affective, social and cognitive sectors, which include several important learning factors like motivation, collaboration and computational thinking. These factors have been studied through the design of a conceptual framework that lies on a blended learning environment encompassing basic teaching programming principles and comprehension concepts that spring off Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM) fields. This blended learning environment was designed in the basis of a flipped classroom model in order to provide on-line distance learning activities through an integrated Learning Management System (LMS) such as Moodle, and face-to-face teaching activities, while making use of the benefits of the SCRATCH programming tool. The educational design was based on the ARCS motivation model (Keller, 1984), for each of its key components (Attention - Relevance - Confidence - Satisfaction), different strategies and techniques were incorporated. Master thesis based on these strategies has the main objective to investigate if there is a statistically significant effect on student motivation on programming using STE(A)M fields. Since programming is definitely a means of cultivation of many important 21st century skills, such as computational thinking and collaboration, greater emphasis has been placed on designing cooperative problem-solving activities. For this reason, activities have been developed on the basis of the Collaborative Learning strategies such as Brainstorming & Think-Pair-Share and the cooperative teaching approach of Pair Programming, which have made it necessary to investigate the development of these skills. The survey was conducted in three phases and carried on the sample of 12 elementary school students aged 9-11. It was based on quantitative data analysis through questionnaires that students filled in during the first and third phase of the research at the beginning and end of the experimental process and observation. The results revealed that the impact of the educational environment was statistically significant in motivating students as well as in developing cooperative and computational thinking skills. The literature review has highlighted the need of creating a conceptual framework containing capabilities for the development of the abovementioned skills, but primarily to motivate young learners such as primary school students, to get familiar with programming principles and in future to get involved with the STEM fields. In Greece however, existing the question of incorporating programming at this educational level, research has showed off the need of framework implementation in students even younger than the ones foreseen in the curricula. Master thesis importance lies in the emergence of this necessity, but also in students' interaction with asynchronous education forms such as electronic courses through which asynchronous collaboration problem solving skills are cultivated. Additionally, it proposes a methodology integrating innovative blended learning model, the flipped classroom in primary education, as a preliminary stage of the exclusive on-line and distance learning. Mainly it focuses on the design of a blended learning environment using various technological means, which orchestrated properly under ARCS motivation model and techniques of collaborative learning, by which teachers can stimulate their students and achieve teaching objectives in each subject.