Η βρεφική θνησιμότητα στην Ευρώπη και στις χώρες της Αφρικής και της Λατινικής Αμερικής και η πιθανή συσχέτιση της με το Α.Ε.Π. και τις δαπάνες για την υγεία
Infant mortality in Europe and the countries of Africa and Latin America and the possible correlation with GDP and health expenditures
KeywordsΒρεφική θνησιμότητα ; Δαπάνες υγείας ; ΑΕΠ ; Οικονομική ανάπτυξη ; Κατά κεφαλήν εισόδημα ; Ευρώπη ; Αφρική ; Λατινική Αμερική ; Infant mortality ; Health expenditure ; GDP ; Economic development ; Income of individuals ; Europe ; Africa ; Latin America
This study examines the relationship between the size of infant mortality at a global level, both with Gross National Product (GDP) and health expenditure, of a country, whether it belongs to developing countries, or to developed countries. This essay contains a total of six (6) chapters, divided into two (2) sections. The first part is the theoretical part of the study, which includes the three (3) chapters of the paper. In the first chapter there is an introduction to the subject to be investigated, where the purpose and the individual objectives of the work are described. The second chapter is the one that analyzes the concept of infant mortality, giving the definition of the particular phenomenon, as well as those factors that determine its magnitude over time. At the same time, the chapter deals with the most important causes that lead to the emergence of infant mortality in each country, taking into account the determinants discussed above. The two (2) last sections of this chapter analyze the ratio and sub-indices of infant mortality, the ways in which they are calculated, and the effect they have on shaping a strategy to address this phenomenon. The third chapter, which completes the first, theoretical part of the study, examines health costs as a concept and content, as well as their relationship with Gross National Product (GDP) . The definition of health expenditure is attributed, and also those factors that determine the magnitude of health costs. For the most complete reading, data on health expenditure (2005 – 2013), as well as how they are financed, are presented by state and social actors. The second section of the study includes two (2) chapters in which a series of statistics are reported on infant mortality, but also the relationship that links it to a series of economic aggregates. More specifically, in the fourth chapter of this paper we present and analyze statistical data referring to three (3) different regions of the world such as Europe, Africa and Latin America. For these three (3) regions, data were collected on life expectancy at birth, neonatal mortality rate, fertility rate and infant mortality rate. For all of the above categories, data collected related to their longitudinal change from 1975 onward until 2015 in order to provide a fuller picture of the changes in sizes and how these changes affected the infant mortality rate in the areas concerned. In the fifth chapter we analyze the relationship between the per capita income of the citizens of a country and the Gross National Product (GNP), which characterizes the size of infant mortality. The economic or non-development of a place affects both the rate of infant mortality in a country and how this size can affect the social environment of all people. Consequently, by drawing up this relationship, it is possible for the reader to come up with more and more secure conclusions about how infant mortality is linked to the economic development of a place. The study concludes with the sixth and final chapters in which the conclusions from the previous analysis are presented, while proposals are made on how to reduce the size of infant mortality in the future.